Teaching in the Middle Ages

Middle Ages

Middle Ages

Historical sources suggest that there were no primary public schools at that time and only the royal family had access to private schools. Children began their official education at the age of seven. However, before they were sent to the appropriate school, they had often already completed some basic education in their respective family homes. The lessons were conducted in groups by clergymen so that children could be inspired by their ambitious approach to acquiring knowledge. The basis for elementary education was not the familiar ‘reading comprehension’ known from primary schools nowadays, but the complete opposite. Children began learning by reciting Psalters. The selection of Psalters as primary reading materials did not raise any concerns at the time. From the very beginning, pupils were expected to sing and know all the psalms by heart before even understanding the meaning of even one Latin word or learning anything about reading the letters of the alphabet. It was only at the next stage of their educational journey were they taught to associate sounds and words with individual letters.
onet.pl

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Burning Problem

Burning Problem

Burning Garbage

From the beginning of the year around 77 garbage heaps have been set alight. In some cases, black smoke has been visible from a distance of several kilometres. One question still remains unanswered: who is to blame for this ecological disaster? Were these fires spontaneous or arson attacks although it is hard to believe that they were all caused naturally. Garbage is great business with Polish refuse centres being paid €50 to process one ton of waste. If you multiply the amount of garbage that the Chief Inspectorate for Environmental Protection (GIOŚ) allowed in 2017, you get a figure of more than PLN 150 million. It is estimated that the illegal garbage business which aims to keep garbage in Poland is even worth PLN 1.5 billion. Waste in landfills should be recycled which involves huge costs. However, ‘spontaneous’ fires suddenly solve this problem, reducing costs and turning all income into profit. However, the detrimental consequences of these fires are effecting millions of Poles.

Political Gamble?

Mateusz Morawiecki

Mateusz Morawiecki

The Polish Government recently adopted the Act on the Institute of National Remembrance. The Senate accepted it without any amendments and President Andrzej Duda, signed it the same day. The amendments repeal  two articles: 55a and 55b. The first speaks of penalties and imprisonment for attributing responsibility to Poland and Poles for the crimes of the Third Reich, and the second that these regulations apply to both Polish citizen and foreigners. The American media commented on these changes. According to the New York Times, Poland is simply repairing the diplomatic damage caused by the previous amendment, adopted in January. The newspaper recalls that the Act had a negative impact not only on the reputation of Poland but also on Polish-Israeli relations, hurting relations developed so far between the nations. The Washington Post believes that the reaction to the previous amendment was so fierce that the authors themselves were surprised. The daily claims that by amending the law once again Law and Justice (PiS) taking a political gamble and has been done to calm tensions with strategic allies, that is the US and the EU. Polish PM Mateusz Morawiecki and Israeli counterpart Benjamin Netanyahu have just signed a  Polish-Israeli declaration that talks about the lack of consent to assign Poland or the entire Polish nation for the atrocities of the Nazis and related collaborators. Both governments have also condemned all forms of anti-Semitism and other negative national stereotypes.
tvn24.pl

Poles Leaving Church

Fading Appeal?

Fading Appeal?

Religious practice among young people is the lowest it has ever been in Poland. According to the latest report of Pew Research Center, young people all over the world is becoming increasingly less religious. This applies to Catholics, Muslims as well as followers of other religions. When it comes to the decline in religiousness, Poland is one of the leading countries. Poles under 40 are most likely to miss religious ceremonies and are least attached to religion. In the case of the lack of daily prayer, only Japan is better than Poland. Even though Poland are still Catholic leaders in Europe and every third priest in Europe is Polish, this number may soon drop dramatically as there are increasingly fewer people joining seminaries. According to research by Professor Józef Baniak of Adam Mickiewicz University, who analyzes religiousness, young Polish people are religious illiterates. They cannot name the most important Catholic prayers and when asked how many Gospels there are, many say there are eight. What is more, many consider St. Peter, the Mother of God and John Paul II to be part of the Holy Trinity.
rp.pl

Pro-family Poles

Focus on Family

Focus on Family

49% of Polish people assess the Polish government’s pro-family politics as well-managed, according to a survey undertaken by CBOS. The least concerned about the subject are respondents living in non-urban areas, of which 57% believe that the programme is being managed well or very well. Out of the six programmes in the pro-family package, most respondents ranked the guarantee of a higher pension for mothers of four or more children, as well as PLN 300 to be paid for every child to buy supplies and textbooks at the beginning of the school year as of the highest priority. However, for most respondents the most relevant benefits for teenagers included vouchers for sports and cultural events. According to the authors of the survey, the way people think about the family has changed over the past few years. Nowadays Poles believe that support should be forthcoming from the government to everyone raising children in Poland.
polskieradio.pl

Owsiak Honoured

Jerzy Owsiak

Jerzy Owsiak

Jerzy Owsiak is the first non-doctor to receive an award from the Polish Society of Cardio-Thoracic Surgeons. It honors individuals who have contributed to the development of medicine. Although not a doctor by profession, he is the founder of the Great Orchestra of Christmas Charity. The charity was set up 26 years ago and one of its notable achievements includes the purchase of over 568 devices for cardiac surgeries worth over PLN 20 million. Three years ago, during the 23rd Orchestra Finale, Owsiak’s NGO managed to raise over PLN 53 million for the purchase of specialist pediatric equipment and for the improvement of medical care provided to elderly people in Poland. Jerzy Owsiak’s charity has collected and donated over PLN 951 million to support Polish healthcare during the last 26 years.
onet.pl

Transport of Tomorrow

Triggo

Triggo

The Triggo is a Polish-made scooter and car in one, the prototype of which will appear on the roads in this year. Triggo will not be available for retail but will be part of car sharing schemes. The service will cost PLN 0.65 for each driven kilometer. The scooter/car was completely designed and manufactured by Polish engineers and is about to start a revolution in urban transportation. Triggo is made for two persons. There are two Triggo modes: one used for maneuvering in traffic and for parking and the other used on the roads driving on the high speeds. Triggo is electric, with sets of batteries distributed at petrol stations, shopping malls, and car parks.